- – Promotes retinal and macular health*
- – Helps to support the transport of lutein to the eye*
- – Works to offset the effects of ultraviolet rays and high energy visible light*
- – Provides high potency antioxidants vitamins C & E as well as zinc*
In Vivo and Ex Vivo Formulation Study
The effect of carotenoids and carnosic acid on inflammation.
The combination of lutein, lycopene, and carnosic acid was found to interfere with key molecular processes responsible for the production of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in stimulated macrophages. Additionally, the production of pro-inflammatory mediator TNFα was inhibited after mouse peritoneal macrophages were pre-incubated for 24 hours with those same ingredients.
N. Hadad and R. Levy, 2012. The synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene, lutein, betacarotene,
and carnosiuc acid combinations via redoxc- based inhibition of NF-kappa ß signaling. Free
Radic Biol Med. 53:1381-1391.
In Vivo and In Vitro Studies on Carnosic Acid
Protective effect of carnosic acid in models of oxidative
stress and light damage2
Multiple studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of carnosic acid in the retina. Research suggests that this nutrient’s ability to penetrate the blood/brain barrier allows it to reach the eye and protect the outer retina from oxidative stress.
2. Rezaie, T. et al., 2012. Protective effect of carnosic acid, a pro-electrophilic compound, in models of
oxidative stress and light-induced retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53: 7847-7854.
3. Yanagitai, M. et al., 2012. Carnosic acid, a pro-electrophilic compound, inhibits LPS-induced activation
of microglia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 418: 22-26.
4. Satoh, T. et al., 2008. Carnosic acid, catechol-type electrophilic compound, protects neurons both in
vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/ Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of targeted cysteines
on Keap1. J Neurochem, 104: 1116-1131.