Osteoclasts And Osteoblasts Study
The effect of NovaHue Menopause on the formation and
function of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
In a cell-based assay conducted at a comprehensive research university lab, the standardized lycopene in NovaHue Menopause inhibited the formation of bone-absorbing osteoclasts and stimulated the activity of bone-building osteoblasts. Additionally, lycopene preparations were found to enhance estrogenic activity in bone cells while inhibiting it in breast cancer cells.1
1. Veprik. et al., 2011. Polyphenols, isothiocyanates and carotenoid derivatives enhance estrogenic activity in bone cells but inhibit it in breast cancer cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 303(7): E815-24. doi: 10.1152 / ajpendo.00142.2011.
Vasomotor Function Study
A meta-analysis revealed that ingestion of isoflavones for six
weeks to 12 months significantly reduced hot-flash frequency by 20.6% and severity by 26.2%.2
In addition, five studies involving a total of 177 treated participants, all of whom consumed more than 15mg genistein per treatment, reported a statistically significant decrease in hot flash symptoms.3
2. Taku, K. et al., 2012. Menopause.
3. Williamson-Hughes, PS. et al., 2006. Isoflavone supplements containing predominantly genistein reduce hot flash symptoms: a critical review of published studies, Menopause 13, 831-839.
Comprehensive Ingredient Studies
The effect of lycopene on overall bone health:
In a 30-day clinical trial, postmenopausal women were put on a lycopene-restricted diet. At the end of the trial, subjects showed a 20% increase in plasma NTx levels, a marker of bone resorption.4
Based on these results, a 4-month clinical trial with 60 postmenopausal subjects was conducted to see if nutritional
supplementation with lycopene could reduce the plasma levels of NTx, helping to restore healthy bone remodeling during and after menopause.5
The combined results of subjects who consumed between 30-70mg of lycopene a day showed a statistically significant reduction in the bone resorption marker NTx (p < 0.001), suggesting that lycopene supplementation has a positive effect on bone health.
The effect of genistein on bone density:
A double-blind placebo-controlled study of postmenopausal women showed significant increase in bone mineral density
(BMD) at the femoral neck after 12 months of daily genistein supplementation.5
A long term (over two years) supplementation period was shown to regulate bone metabolism significantly increasing femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD.6-7 After three years of supplementation, genistein exhibited a promising safety profile in the study.8
The effect of Vitamin D on effective calcium absorption:
As of 2008, more than 500 metabolic tracer studies had been performed showing higher levels of vitamin D in the blood
correlated with increased calcium absorption.9
One such study, conducted by the Women’s Health Initiative on 2,431 subjects who were over 65 years of age showed that vitamin D and calcium supplementation resulted in a 1.06% increase in total hip density.10
4. Mackinnon, ES. et al., 2011. Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 22: 1091-1101.
5. Morabito, N., Crisafulli, A., Vergara, C., Gaudio, A., Lasco, A., Frisina, N., D’Anna, R., Corrado, F., Pizzoleo, M. A., Cincotta, M., Altavilla, D., Ientile, R., and Squadrito, F. (2002) Effects of genistein and hormone-replacement therapy on bone loss in early postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 17, 1904-1912 Marini, H., Minutoli, L., Polito, F., Bitto, A., Altavilla, D., Atteritano, M., Gaudio, A.
6. Mazzaferro, S., Frisina, A., Frisina, N., Lubrano, C., Bonaiuto, M., D’Anna, R., Cannata, M. L., Corrado, F., Adamo, E. B., Wilson, S., and Squadrito, F. (2007) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 146, 839-847.
7. Marini, H., Minutoli, L., Polito, F., Bitto, A., Altavilla, D., Atteritano, M., Gaudio, A., Mazzaferro, S., Frisina, A., Frisina, N., Lubrano, C., Bonaiuto, M., D’Anna, R., Cannata, M. L., Corrado, F., Cancellieri, F., Faraci, M., Marini, R., Adamo, E. B., Wilson, S., and Squadrito, F. (2008) OPG and sRANKL serum concentrations in osteopenic, postmenopausal women after 2-year genistein administration. J Bone Miner Res 23, 715-720.
8. Marini, H., Bitto, A., Altavilla, D., Burnett, B. P., Polito, F., Di Stefano, V., Minutoli, L., Atteritano, M., Levy, R. M., D’Anna, R., Frisina, N., Mazzaferro, S., Cancellieri, F., Cannata, M. L., Corrado, F., Frisina, A., Adamo, V., Lubrano, C., Sansotta, C., Marini, R., Adamo, E. B., and Squadrito, F. (2008) Breast safety and efficacy of genistein aglycone for postmenopausal bone loss: a follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 4787-4796.
9. Heaney, RP. 2008. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 87(3): 794.
10. Jackson, RD. et al., 2006. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med, 354, 669-683.